P-value functions

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Accompanying paper

We published an accompanying paper to illustrate the use of p-value functions:

Infanger D, Schmidt-Trucksäss A. (2019): P value functions: An underused method to present research results and to promote quantitative reasoning. Statistics in Medicine. 38: 4189-4197. doi: 10.1002/sim.8293.

Recreation of the figures in the paper

The code and instructions to reproduce all graphics in our paper can be found in the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/DInfanger/pvalue_functions


This is the repository for the R-package pvaluefunctions. The package contains R functions to create graphics of p-value functions, confidence distributions, confidence densities, or the Surprisal value (S-value) (Greenland 2019).


You can install the package directly from CRAN by typing install.packages("pvaluefunctions"). After installation, load it in R using library(pvaluefunctions).


The function depends on the following R packages, which need to be installed beforehand:

Use the command install.packages(c("ggplot2", "scales", "zipfR")) in R to install those packages.


For more examples and code, see the vignette.


Bender R, Berg G, Zeeb H. (2005): Tutorial: using confidence curves in medical research. Biom J. 47(2): 237-47.

Fraser D. A. S. (2019): The p-value function and statistical inference. Am Stat, 73:sup1, 135-147.

Greenland S (2019): Valid P-Values Behave Exactly as They Should: Some Misleading Criticisms of P-Values and Their Resolution with S-Values. Am Stat, 73sup1, 106-114.

Infanger D, Schmidt-Trucksäss A. (2019): P value functions: An underused method to present research results and to promote quantitative reasoning. Stat Med, 38, 4189-4197. doi: 10.1002/sim.8293.

Poole C. (1987a): Beyond the confidence interval. Am J Public Health. 77(2): 195-9.

Poole C. (1987b) Confidence intervals exclude nothing. Am J Public Health. 77(4): 492-3.

Rosenthal R, Rubin DB. (1994): The counternull value of an effect size: A new statistic. Psychol Sci. 5(6): 329-34.

Schweder T, Hjort NL. (2016): Confidence, likelihood, probability: statistical inference with confidence distributions. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Xie M, Singh K, Strawderman WE. (2011): Confidence Distributions and a Unifying Framework for Meta-Analysis. J Am Stat Assoc 106(493): 320-33. doi: 10.1198/jasa.2011.tm09803.

Xie Mg, Singh K. (2013): Confidence distribution, the frequentist distribution estimator of a parameter: A review. Internat Statist Rev. 81(1): 3-39.


Denis Infanger

Session info

#> R version 3.6.1 (2019-07-05)
#> Platform: x86_64-w64-mingw32/x64 (64-bit)
#> Running under: Windows 10 x64 (build 17134)
#> Matrix products: default
#> locale:
#> [1] LC_COLLATE=German_Switzerland.1252  LC_CTYPE=German_Switzerland.1252   
#> [3] LC_MONETARY=German_Switzerland.1252 LC_NUMERIC=C                       
#> [5] LC_TIME=German_Switzerland.1252    
#> attached base packages:
#> [1] stats     graphics  grDevices utils     datasets  methods   base     
#> other attached packages:
#> [1] pvaluefunctions_1.5.0
#> loaded via a namespace (and not attached):
#>  [1] Rcpp_1.0.2        pillar_1.4.2      compiler_3.6.1   
#>  [4] prettyunits_1.0.2 remotes_2.1.0     tools_3.6.1      
#>  [7] testthat_2.2.1    digest_0.6.20     pkgbuild_1.0.4   
#> [10] pkgload_1.0.2     tibble_2.1.3      gtable_0.3.0     
#> [13] evaluate_0.14     memoise_1.1.0     pkgconfig_2.0.2  
#> [16] rlang_0.4.0       cli_1.1.0         curl_4.0         
#> [19] yaml_2.2.0        xfun_0.8          dplyr_0.8.3      
#> [22] withr_2.1.2       stringr_1.4.0     knitr_1.24       
#> [25] desc_1.2.0        fs_1.3.1          devtools_2.1.0   
#> [28] tidyselect_0.2.5  rprojroot_1.3-2   grid_3.6.1       
#> [31] glue_1.3.1        R6_2.4.0          processx_3.4.1   
#> [34] rmarkdown_1.14    sessioninfo_1.1.1 purrr_0.3.2      
#> [37] callr_3.3.1       ggplot2_3.2.1     magrittr_1.5     
#> [40] scales_1.0.0      backports_1.1.4   ps_1.3.0         
#> [43] htmltools_0.3.6   usethis_1.5.1     assertthat_0.2.1 
#> [46] colorspace_1.4-1  stringi_1.4.3     lazyeval_0.2.2   
#> [49] munsell_0.5.0     crayon_1.3.4


License: GPL v3